The End of Liberalism has 52 ratings and 5 reviews. Jonathan said: This The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States Theodore J. Lowi. The End of Liberalism. The Second Republic of the United States. 40th Anniversary Edition. Paperback. Theodore J. Lowi (Author). The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States is a non-fiction book by Theodore J. Lowi and is considered a modern classic of political.

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The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States by Theodore J. Lowi

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States. Lowi Lowi pursues two objectives in his book.

First, it is an inquiry into the contemporary liberalism, its loai and its policies. Second, he claims his book is polemic. The book has a strong view point.

The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States

It is targeting modern liberal state, its ideology, and its self-defeating policies. The book is structured in four parts: In my precis I explain Part I, briefly. It is not a coincidence that the United States is so suitable for capitalism, constitutionally. The Constitution itself was drafted under influences of the Anglo-Saxon traditional thinking, honoring the individual rights and the preservation of private property as the sanctimonious building blocks of American political structure.

Since the industrial revolution in England, the United States easily adopted the new economic structure known as Laissez-faire.

The employed metaphor is to underscore the importance of capitalism to American political structure. He believes this structure is the result of dominant old public philosophy of the 19th century.

Lowi believes capitalism is not an ideology; rather it is a bundle of economic and technological processes. Capitalism is therefore something that someone does, rather than believes in it. It can occur everywhere as long as a theoddore economic order is applied to that society.

The End of Liberalism – Wikipedia

Then there is literature developed on behalf of these patterns, writes Lowi. Repeating these justifying words and spreading widely, it will become the ideology of the thing, and then he concludes capitalism has a strong theoretical core in America. Adam Smith appealed to the builders of America in the nineteenth-century for the two most important reasons: However, Lowi claims that capitalism declined as ideology and died as public philosophy due to the demise of Laissez-faire economics in early twentieth century.

As a result, it is called conservatism. The capitalist ideologues became disloyal to the intellectual spirit of liberal economics. Therefore, the capitalist ideology became irrelevant and error-ridden. Lowi issues a warning early in his book. He believes modern society must be in charge of controlling the market forces.

Otherwise, market becomes a menace rather than good provider. In regards to capitalist driven sociological development, Lowi lists four phases: On the division of labor, Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations initially is concerned about the improvement in productive powers of labor. If men could rationally apply their activities to their self-interest, there would be a great hike in productivity beyond any public policy could facilitate. The reason for this shift slowing down labor division would be the specialization in regards to technological development.

Specialization may reach an automatic equilibrium. On the law of population, Thomas Malthus in his Essay on the Principle of Population creates one of the most important laws of industrial society: As the supply of food goes up at an arithmetic rate 1, the population goes up at a geometric rate 2. This means that the population growth rate is a lot faster than food supply.


The division of labor, and population growth do not support each other in a harmonious way.

The End of Liberalism

The amount of product available for distribution is never enough; moments of prosperity are either short-lived or create new population pressure, through the competition for work, reduce the price of labor.

To Ricardo the tendency toward declining wages was limited only by the absolute necessities of survival. On the explosion of real estate values, Henry George is considered as an important figure into industrial society.

In his book Progress and Poverty George attempts to grapple with apparent paradox of a large class of unattached poor in a society of increasing prosperity. George observed the value of real estate increases in some proportion with increased population density or urbanization, and this increased value is never distributed to the population whose growth produced it. The concept of administrating led to modern government.

Lowi believes administration brings two major dilemmas to capitalist theory. First, there is a conscious control as the predominant fact about modern conduct. Second, self-regulating mechanism has shifted from market competition to group competition. Lowi calls this paradigm shift, from self-regulation through economics to self-regulation through politics Lowi The first dilemma led to embracing positive government, hence statism, and the second led to pluralism.

The new public philosophy, interest- group liberalism, serves as the amalgam of capitalism, statism, and pluralism. Social relations are to be managed or administered by modern government. As society grows and capital expands, the roles and assignments of administration private and public grow.

However, there is a disparity between the administrative growth rate and the production growth rate. Lowi, in a graph, shows the number of Administrative and Production Employees in Industry increase, The administrative curve grows higher than the production curve. Lowi establishes the necessitation of pluralism, as it is inevitable. There is a generally accepted opinion that power and control are properties of state.

Lowi accepts this opinion, but calls it one-sided. He believes there are actually three sides of power. Who controls the state? What about the institutions other than the state which are in control? Lowi emphasizes on the institutions other than the state in an industrial civilization.

On this context the pluralist model is superior.

The ssecond theory believes that there are many sources of power and control in a state other than government. Fheodore represents and defends some interests. This reupblic the reason why the pluralist can accept the idea of government expansion.

Thwodore is therefore, the way the system works and the way it ought to work. This is also a Madisonian virtue that the pluralist view claims there is nothing to fear from government so long as many factions compete for its favor. And liberalixm pluralism turned Madisonian position from negative to positive; that government is good because many factions do compete for its favor Lowi Liberalusm, he is quick to give us his critique of pluralism as an ideology. Lowi believes that the nineteen-century liberal capitalism died.

The decline of capitalist ideology, as American public philosophy, took form of a dialogue between a private and a public view of society. The dialogue between a new liberalism and an old liberalism conservatism ended in The main issue between the sides was the question of the nature of government itself and whether expansion or contraction of government best produced public good.

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Expansion of government was demanded by new liberalism as the means of combating the injustices of a brutal world that would not change as long as we re;ublic submitted ourselves to it. The mark of the new liberalism was its assumption that the instruments of government provided the means for conscious inducement of social change and that outside the capacity for change no experimentation with new institutional forms would be possible.

Opposition to such means, but not necessarily to the proposed forms themselves, became the mark of contemporary conservatism Lowi The change and reform is supported by Liberalism. By the Right he means those parties or movements that are skeptical of popular governments. They oppose the plans of reformers, and support Men with substantial stake in the established order.

By the Left, he means those parties or movements that demand lowu popular participation in government, push actively for reforms and provide tehodore support for the disinherited and disgruntled.

As a general rule, with ignoring some exceptions, the Right is conservative or reactionary; the Left eepublic liberal or radical. Afterthe Constitution did not die from the Roosevelt revolution, however, the basis for the liberal conservative dialogue died. Liberalism- Conservatism as the source of public philosophy no longer made any sense.

Once the principle of positive government in an indeterminable but expanding political sphere was established, the criteria yheodore out of the very issue of expansion became irrelevant Lowi Lowi believes that the dialogue of Liberalism-Conservatism persisted regardless, as old habits die hard. Its persistence despite its irrelevance means that the debate has become almost purely ritualistic. This meaningless persistence of Liberalism-Conservatism debate created an illusion of a new public philosophy which is responsible for the political pathologies of the s and s.

The libwralism is about the decline of a meaningful dialogue as if political proceeding was in favor of Administrative, technical, and logrolling politics. Lowi believes that this situation has made liberlism a matter of equity rather than a matter of morality. This is the political decline that he underscores in modern time the United States.

New York, Knopf, In the table there are a number of public policies and private policies that have been arranged, according to the two fundamental dimensions of liberalism-conservatism. Above the line is the public sphere containing public policy, below the line are the policies and the established group practices associated with the private sphere.

To the left is the liberal direction, where policies are placed if they were likely to produce a direct social change. To the right is the conservative direction because the policies and practices placed there are thought to militate against change and to support the status quo Lowi Lowi concludes that liberal-conservative dialogue made no sense after the principle of positive government was established.

He gets into details about liberalism-conservatism debate concerning public policies. I liberaalism write briefly on one of them: